Stories

The 200 story nodes created in commemoration of the Sir John A. Macdonald Bicentennial can be searched by more than twenty themes, through the pins on the interactive map and by date on the timeline. 

You're viewing 113 stories about “Legacy
Execution of Stanislaus Lacroix on March 21, 1902 in Hull, Quebec. Source: Napoleon Belanger, Library and Archives Canada.

The Death Penalty

1759 - July 14, 1976

Like any 19th century lawyer in what is now Ontario and Canada, John A. was well acquainted with the death penalty.

Portrait of Louis Riel circa 1875. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

John A.'s Assessment of First Peoples

1815-2015

Criticism has been directed at John A.'s racist assessment of Canada's First Peoples and the political insensitivity of his authorization of the execution of Louis Riel.

Brunswick Place in Glasgow has been identified as the likely birthplace of Sir John A. Macdonald. Source: Archives of Ontario.

Glasgow, Scotland

1815 ,

John A. was born in Glasgow, Scotland, coming to Kingston and area with his family when the future Prime Minister was five years old, in 1820.

Sir George Étienne Cartier by Notman & Son. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

George-Étienne Cartier and Sir John A. (colleagues)

1815-1873

Sir John A. Macdonald and Sir George-Étienne Cartier were close friends, political colleagues, and shared a vision of a continental Canada.

Hon. John A. Macdonald, Hon. George-Etienne Cartier and Lieutenant-Colonel John G. Irvine. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

George-Étienne Cartier and Sir John A. (confederation)

1815-1873

Macdonald and Cartier were united in their commitment to integrate the Maritimes into Confederation at the Charlottetown Conference (1864).

Sir John A Macdonald circa 1842 or 1843. Artist unknown. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

A Man of His Time

1815-2015

The bicentenary of John Alexander Macdonald's birth in 2015 has prompted many assessments of his life, legacy and role. Some have focussed on him as an iconic figure in the national history.

Sir John A Macdonald circa 1888. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Patriarch of Canada

1815-2015

John A. Macdonald is rendered as the "patriarch of Canada" in an era when the concept of nation-state had not yet been articulated.

George Brown addressing an audience during an election campaign by Charles William Jefferys. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

George Brown and Sir John A.

November 29, 1818 - May 9, 1880

Sir John A. had no greater foe than Liberal – or Reform as the party was known in the early days – leader George Brown of Toronto.

Sir Alexander Campbell. Source: Library and Archives Canada

Sir Alexander Campbell

March 9, 1822 - May 24, 1892

Sir John A. had no closer confidant in Kingston than his fellow Father of Confederation, Sir Alexander Campbell.

The unveiling of 'Holding Court.'  L-R: Robert Quaiff (Mayor of Prince Edward County), Daryl Kramp (M.P. Hastings and Prince Edward), Janet Minor (Treasurer of the Law Society of Upper Canada), Ruth Abernethy (Artist), David Warrick (Chair of the Macdonald Project). Source: The Macdonald Project.

Sir John A and "The County"

October 8, 1834

While often referred to as Macdonald of Kingston, he and his family originally had close associations with Prince Edward County and the Bay of Quinte region to the west of Kingston from 1824-1835.

Lady Agnes Macdonald circa 1873 by William Topley. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Susan Agnes Bernard

August 24, 1836 – September 5, 1920

Susan Agnes Bernard, who grew up in Jamaica, married John A. , in England, in early 1867. Her brother, Hewitt, served as Macdonald's private secretary.

Sir John A. and Queen's University

December 18 1839 - October 16, 1841

On Dec. 18, 1839, the day after the bill was introduced to the Legislature for the establishment of a Presbyterian college to train ministers, a meeting was held in St.

Bellevue House. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Bellevue House

1840 - present day

Once home to John A. and his first wife, Isabella, Bellevue House, an architectural gem and a National Historic Site, was officially opened as a museum by Her Majesty the Queen in 1967.

Kingston as the capital of the United Provinces of Canada. Source: City of Kingston

Kingston Becomes the Capital of the United Provinces of Canada

1841-1844

During John A.'s early years, his entire community of Kingston was – briefly – the centre of an exciting colonial moment.

Confederation Celebrations in Market Square on July 1, 1867. Source: Queen's University Archives.

John A.'s Community Presence

1841-1849

Apart from is career in law and politics, Macdonald was a visible and active presence in 19th century Kingston society.

Students with home-built car, Queen's University, Kingston, ON circa 1916 by Clifford M. Johnston. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Queen's University

October 16, 1841 - present day

Sir John A. Macdonald attended and participated in the earliest Kingston meetings that led to the establishment of what is now Queen's University.

Sir John A. circa 1856 by F.S. Richardson. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

The Trust and Loan Company

1843-1948

In 1843 Macdonald helped secure the charter for the Kingston-based Trust and Loan Company, a mortgage bank.

Kingston City Hall and Market circa 1910. Source: Archives of Ontario.

Kingston's City Hall

1844-present day

Designed by famed architect George Brown and now a National Historic Site, Kingston's majestic City Hall was completed in 1844. Even today City Hall commands the Kingston skyline.

Sir John A. Macdonald, date unknown. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

The 1844 Election Platform

October 14 & 15, 1844

In 1844, an election was called in the Province of Canada. John A. stood as the Conservative candidate for Kingston. His platform was about building roads and infrastructure.

Sir John A. and Kingston General Hospital

May 30, 1849

As Kingston grew, so did the need for medical care. In May 1846, Macdonald presented a memorandum to the Governor General requesting the establishment of a hospital and £300 was awarded.

Montreal: Banquet Tendered to Mr. Thomas White, Jr. Sir John A. Macdonald Replying to the Toast of her Majesty's Loyal Opposition. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

John A. and French Canada

1850-1860

Part of Sir John A. Macdonald's greatness and one of his most important legacies revolves around his treatment of French Canada.

Crimean cannon in City Park. Source: City of Kingston.

Crimean War Cannons at the Sir John A. Statue in Kingston's City Park

1853 - present day

The two cannons flanking the Sir John A. statue in Kingston's City Park were captured in the Crimean War (1853 – 1856) as English trophies of war.

Mr. Joseph Pope by William James Topley. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Sir Joseph Pope

August 16, 1854 - December 2, 1926

Sir Joseph Pope was the famous – and loyal – private assistant to Sir John A. Macdonald during the Father of Confederation's latter years.

Morley Indian Residential School - McDougall Orphanage, students, Morley, Alberta circa 1885-1890 by David Ewens. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Macdonald and First Peoples

1857-1887

Macdonald has been accused of insensitivity, even hostility, to the First Peoples marked by his policies of cultural assimilation (some would say cultural genocide), a policy of reservations that l

Library of Parliament after 1885 by William Topley. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Library of Parliament

1857-present

Today Canada's Library of Parliament is considered by many to be one of the most beautiful parts of the Centre Block of the Parliament Buildings in Ottawa.

The Gradual Civilization Act

1857 - present day

The Act to Encourage the Gradual Civilization of Indian Tribes in this Province, and to Amend the Laws Relating to Indians was passed by the Province of Canada in 1857 when Macdon

City of Ottawa, Canada West by Stent and Laver, circa 1860 (prior to the Parliament Buildings). Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Ottawa Becomes the Capital

January 1858

For years the seat of Parliament had been alternating every four years between Quebec City and Toronto, but this was costly and disruptive and a permanent capital was needed.

Charles Tupper circa 1873. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

John A. and Charles Tupper

1860-1891

As premier of Nova Scotia, Charles Tupper leads the reluctant province into Confederation in 1867, then goes on to have a long and complicated relationship with Macdonald.

Hon. John A. Macdonald, Attorney General, Canada West circa 1861. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Responsibility for the Cancellation of the Visit from the Prince of Wales Lands with John A.

August 25, 1860

Responsibility for the public debacle of the Prince of Wales' cancelled visit to Kingston was attributed to Macdonald and, despite his Orange connections, the incident threatened his candidacy in t

Sir John A. Macdonald portrait by William Sawyer. Photo: Chris Miner. Source: City of Kingston.

Sir John A.'s Portrait in Kingston's City Hall

1863

Painted by well-known photographer and portrait artist William Sawyer in 1863 (four years prior to Confederation), the full length portrait potrays the yet-to-be-knighted John A.

William MacDougall by Topley Studio. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

William MacDougall Attends the Gettysburg Address

November 19, 1863

Canada was represented on the platform at Gettysburg when Abraham Lincoln delivered what is probably the most famous speech in American history, the Gettysburg Address, in November of 1863.

First page of text inside the leather-bound copy of the British North America Act, March 29, 1867. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

John A. Writes Much of the British North America Act

1864-1867

While many students of law, who later become lawyers, study and read a great deal about the constitution, John A.'s legal training proved particularly relevant in the run-up to Confederation.

Charlottetown Conference

August 25, 1864

In August 1864, the Canadian government steamer, Queen Victoria, loaded to the gunnels with champagne, sailed into Prince Edward Island, for the Charlottetown Conference, an event that became a tur

Title Page of the 72 Resolutions of the Quebec City Conference, October 10, 1864 with doodles by Sir John A. Macdonald. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

John A. at the Quebec Conference

October 1864

It was at the Quebec Conference that Frances Monck, the governor general's niece, noted that Macdonald was always drunk and that he had been found in his hotel room, with a rug thrown over his nigh

Delegates at the Quebec Conference, 1864. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

The Quebec Conference

October 10, 1864

On October 10, 1864, a second conference, the Quebec Conference, was held in Quebec City. For two weeks Sir John A. rallied the separate parties with impassioned speeches.

Parliamentary Debates on the subject of the Confederation of the British North American Provinces, 1865. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

The Debate on Confederation Begins

March 11, 1865

Early in 1865, Macdonald gave the opening speech for the parliamentary debate on Confederation. This speech was apparently one of the longest and least convincing he ever gave.

The Fathers of Confederation at the London Conference, 1866. Source: Library and Archives Canada

The British North America Bill

December 4, 1866 - July 1, 1867

A final Confederation conference was held in London, England on December 4, 1866 at the Westminister Palace Hotel. The event lasted three days and no minutes were taken.

Collapse of the Commercial Bank

1867

Queen's University is devastated by the collapse of the Commercial Bank, of which Sir John A. is a director and legal advisor.

Robert Baldwin circa 1917. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Robert Baldwin

1867-1890

This great reforming leader from what is now Ontario played a key role in bringing responsible government to what is now Canada. Sir John A.

In Hiawatha Council Hall on occasion of federal by-election on October 31, 1960 by Nick Nickels. From left to right: Lawrence Salleby; Chief Ralph Loucks, deputy returning officer; Lucy Muskrat, poll clerk; Eldon Muskrat, poll constable. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Voting Rights for First Peoples

1867-1960

Under the leadership of Sir John A. Macdonald, limited voting rights are extended to some First Peoples men.

Conservative Party Whips group circa 1880 by William Topley. L. to R.: Rufus Stephenson, Adolphe Caron, Arthur T.H. Williams, last two unidentified. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

John A. Considered the Founder of the Conservative Party of Canada

1867-present

Our national political parties have served as one of the places where like-minded Canadians can gather under one tent.

Women's dormitory, Immigration Building, St John, NB circa 1920-1930. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

John A. and Immigration

1867-2015

There can be no defence of Sir John A.'s views on the exclusion of potential immigrants on biological, cultural or religious grounds other than, yet again, to argue that he was a man of his times.

Reading the proclamation of Confederation in Market Square on July 1, 1867. Source: Queen's University Archives.

John A. Becomes Sir John A.

July 1, 1867

On the morning of July 1, 1867, the first Dominion Day, John A. received word that he had been granted a knighthood. He was now officially Sir John A. Macdonald, and Agnes was Lady Macdonald.

A Transcontinental Nation

1867-1891

While it took the true qualities of leadership and statesmanship to bring Canada together in 1867, Sir John A. Macdonald did not stop there.

Sir John A. Macdonald circa 1883 by William James Topley. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

International Leadership

July 1, 1867 - June 6, 1891

Macdonald shared the international stage with several other internationally recognized figures in the second half of the nineteenth century including Bismarck (Germany), Garibaldi (Italy), and Linc

Sir John A. Macdonald circa 1883 by William James Topley. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

International Presence

July 1, 1867 - June 6, 1891

While Macdonald is feted for his local municipal presence and national role as the "Father of Canada," his presence on the international stage should also be acknowledged.

Lady Agnes Macdonald circa 1873 by William Topley. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Agnes Macdonald's Influence on Sir John A.'s Mood

July 7, 1867

Not surprisingly, Sir John A put in some long hours at the office. In her diary a week after Confederation, Agnes Macdonald gives us an insider’s view of his mood and their relationship.

John Sandfield Macdonald by William James Topley. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

John Sandfield Macdonald

July 16, 1867 – December 20, 1871

Also hailing from eastern Ontario, John Sandfield Macdonald was Ontario's first Premier. His service to his province has been overshadowed by Sir John A.

Thomas D'Arcy McGee circa 1861 by Ellisson & Co. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

D'Arcy McGee

1868

While Sir John A. Macdonald is often, rightly, called the architect of Confederation, D'Arcy McGee is known as Confederation's poet.

Funeral Procession of the late Hon. Thomas D'Arcy McGee. Montreal, Canada. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

D'Arcy McGee Is Murdered

April 7, 1868

On April 7, 1868, John A.'s trusted colleague, drinking partner and old friend D'Arcy McGee was murdered. McGee had been at the parliamentary debates until well after midnight. At 2 a.m.

Printed Declaration of the People of Rupert's Land and the North West, by Bruce, John and Louis Riel, opposing the establishment of Canadian authority. December 8, 1869. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

The Sale of Rupert's Land to Canada

March 20, 1869

After significant pressure from Great Britain, the Hudson's Bay Company sold Rupert's Land to Canada.

Councillors of the 1869 Provisional Government of the Métis Nation. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

The Manitoba Act

May 12, 1870

With consideration of the Métis' list of conditions, in 1870 Sir John A. and the Canadian government drafted the Manitoba Act, which created the small province of Manitoba.

Map of the system of the Grand Trunk Railway Company of Canada. Direct route to all points in Canada and United States, the great International Route between the east and west. 1887. Matthews, Northrup & Co. Buffalo, N.Y Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Rail and Kingston

1871-1885

Negative feelings in Kingston and Macdonald's opposition to the Grand Trunk Railway (GTR) can be attributed to: a timetable that was inconvenient to local business; it bypassing the city by two mil

Sir George-Étienne Cartier, after 1882. Montréal, Quebec. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

British Columbia Becomes the Sixth Canadian Province

July 20, 1871

In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth Canadian province, joining Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Manitoba.

Edward Blake by Edmund Wyly Grier. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Edward Blake

December 20, 1871 – October 25, 1872

For much of the time Sir John A. Macdonald served as Prime Minister, the brilliant Edward Blake sat across from him in the Commons as Leader of the Opposition.

Hamilton procession of Nine-Hour Movement Men. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

The Trades Union Act

1872

The rights of Canadian workers to organize and collectively bargain with their employers are now enshrined in Canadian constitutional law.

Alexander Mackenzie. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Alexander Mackenzie

1873 - 1878

Alexander Mackenzie, Canada's second Prime Minister and the first Liberal leader to hold the post of Prime Minister, has the unique distinction of being the only political leader to have defeated S

"Blackwash and Whitewash" Source: A caricature history of Canadian politics: events from the union of 1841, as illustrated by cartoons from “Grip” and various other sources by J. W. Bengough, With an introd. by Rev. Grant, Toronto, Grip Print. and Pub. Co., 1886. - Toronto : P. Martin Associates, 1974

The Greatest Political Comeback

1873-1878

As Canada's first Prime Minister, Sir John A. won an incredible – by today's standards – six majority governments.

Personnel of the North-West Mounted Police, Dawson, Yukon. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

The Establishment of the North-West Mounted Police

May 23, 1873

On May 23, 1873, Queen Victoria, acting on the advice of Sir John A., approved the act to establish the North-West Mounted Police, later to become the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, one of the most

Grip, Toronto. April 29, 1882.

John A and the Political Picnic

1873-1878

Considering that he won six majority mandates from Canadians as their first and founding Prime Minister, it won’t be a surprise to discover that Sir John A.

Russell House Hotel by William James Topley, circaa 1893. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

John A. Resigns as Prime Minister

November 5, 1873

On November 5, 1873, plagued by scandal over accepting funds for a new railway during the 1872 election campaign, Sir John A. resigned as prime minister.

One page of the Six Nations Reserve petition protesting the Indian Act of 1876. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

The Indian Act (1876)

1876-present

In 1876, Sir John A. and his government created the Indian Act to encourage the assimilation of indigenous peoples living in Canada.

Sir Martin Frobisher by Cornelius Ketel. Source: Bodleian Library, Oxford.

Thanksgiving

1879 - present day

It was under the leadership of Sir John A. Macdonald's government that Thanksgiving was first given official recognition in 1879. At that time a date in November was chosen for Thanksgiving.

Nicholas Flood Davin, M.P. Source: William James Topley, Library and Archives Canada.

Report on Industrial Schools for Indians and Half Breeds

1879

In 1879, Nicolas Flood Davin reported to the Canadian government recommendations on First Peoples education and assimilation.

First Peoples children holding letters that spell "Goodbye" at Fort Simpson Indian Residential School in the North West Territories circa 1922. Source: J.F. Moran / Library and Archives Canada.

Residential Schools

1883 - 1996

In 1883, Macdonald supported the implementation of government-funded residential schools.

Hot springs pool. Banff, Alberta circa 1900 by Samuel J. Jarvis. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Canada's National Parks

1885

It was under Sir John A. Macdonald's government that Canada's system of National Parks was started.

Gabriel Dumont (1837-1906), Military Commander of the Métis during the North West Rebellion of 1885 by Harvey J. Strong. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Gabriel Dumont Serves as Louis Riel's Chief Military Officer

1885

In 1885, Gabriel Dumont served as Louis Riel's chief military officer as Riel attempted to seek justice from the Macdonald government – or, depending on your point of view, led a rebellion.

Sir George Étienne Cartier by Notman & Son. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

George-Étienne Cartier on His Friendship with Sir John A.

1885

Following Macdonald's appointment as Prime Minister in 1867, Cartier was his constant supporter until his own death in 1873.

Group photograph of Metis and First Peoples prisoners from the North West Rebellion by O.B. Buell. (L-R): Ignace Poitras, Pierre Parenteau, Baptiste Parenteau, Pierre Gariepy, Ignace Poitras Jr., Albert Monkman, Pierre Vandal, Baptiste Vandal, Joseph Arcand, Maxime Dubois, James Short, Pierre Henry, Baptiste Tourond, Emmanuel Champagne, Kit-a-wa-how (Alex Cagen, ex-chief of the Muskeg Lake Indians). Source: Library and Archives Canada.

The Indian Act (1885)

1885

By 1885, the Canadian government had tried to alter much of the Indian Act and remained unresponsive to the calls by the Métis for negotiations regarding the conditions they had made in 1869.

Councillors of the Provisional Government of the Métis Nation. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Louis Riel and the Provisional Government (1885)

1885

In 1885, following the emigration of the Métis to Saskatchewan and the ongoing encroachment of settlers, the Métis continued to petition Macdonald's government for their land rights.

The Capture of Batoche by Grundy. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

The Battle of Batoche

May 9, 1885 - May 12, 1885

The Battle of Batoche marked the final battle of the Northwest Resistance. Over the course of three days, 250 Métis battled more than 900 Canadian Forces troops.

Chinese camp (Canadian Pacific Railway), Kamloops, British Columbia circa 1886. Source: Library and Archives Canada. 

The Results of the Royal Commission on the use of Chinese Labourers in the Construction of the CPR

1885-1923

In 1885, the Royal Commission reported that, while the Chinese were not an inferior race, were good workers and should not be excluded, future arrivals should be regulated by a head tax of $50.

Louis Riel addressing the jury during his trial for treason in 1885 by O.B. Buell. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

The Trial of Louis Riel

November 16, 1885

Sir John A. ordered that the trial of Louis Riel be held in Regina, which assured a Protestant jury rather than risk a potentially diverse mixed jury in Winnipeg.

John A. and Manulife Financial

1887

In a move that would be unthinkable today under government conflict of interest and other rules governing public office holders, Sir John A., while Prime Minister, became President of what is now M

Canadian spelling

Canadian Spelling

1890

In 1890 Sir John A. Macdonald and his cabinet issued an Order-in-Council directing that British spellings be put in uniform use in all Government of Canada documents.

Kingston Dry Dock. Source: Marine Museum Kingston.

Macdonald Gives Kingston a Dry Dock

1891

In what will be his final election campaign, Sir John A. gives Kingston the gift of a new dry dock. Mixing business, scandal and politics, his team arranges for a fictious contractor, Andrew C.

More than ten thousand people filed past Macdonald's coffin as he lay in state in City Hall. Source: Queen's University Archives.

Sir John A.'s Death

June 6, 1891

Macdonald died on June 6, 1891, and, following several days of ceremonies in Ottawa, his steel-casketed body arrived in downtown Kingston on June 10, symbolically, by rail.

Hector Langevin circa 1873 by William James Topley. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Hector Langevin

June 8, 1891

After the death of Cartier in the 1870s, Hector Langevin worked his hardest to fill the shoes of his fallen friend as Sir John A.'s leading partner in French Canada.

Sir John A. Macdonald's funeral procession on Parliament Hill, Ottawa, June 1891. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Wilfrid Laurier's Eulogy to Sir John A.

June 8, 1891

In his eulogy to Sir John A., Wilfrid Laurier told the House of Commons, "it is almost impossible to convince the unwilling mind that Sir John Macdonald is no more, that the chair which we now see

Funeral of Sir John A. Macdonald, Cataraqui Cemetery, Kingston, ON by James W Powell. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Sir John A.'s Funeral

June 11, 1891

On June 11, the day of the funeral, the horse-drawn hearse proceeded to Cataraqui Cemetery along streets lined with mourners from across Ontario and Quebec, and Kingston expressed its mourning by t

Sir John Abbott. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Sir John Abbott

June 16, 1891 – November 24, 1892

Sir John Abbott was a senior member of Sir John A.'s cabinets. Upon Sir John A.'s death in 1891 the Governor General chose Abbott to be the Father of Confederation's successor.

Sir John Thompson. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Sir John Thompson

December 5, 1892 – December 12, 1894

Sir John Thompson, of Nova Scotia, was to become Prime Minister after Sir John Abbott retired due to poor health.

Sir John A. Statue. Photo: Alexander Gabov. Source: City of Kingston.

Sir John A. Statue in City Park

October 23, 1895 - present day

There are numerous statues of Sir John A. Macdonald across Canada. The statue in Kingston's City Park is a full-length bronze depiction of Sir John A.

Nellie McClung by Cyril Jessop. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Voting Rights for Women

1921-1960

While it wasn't until the 1921 that some women were granted the right to vote and not until 1960 that all Canadian women had the right to vote in federal elections, Macdonald was the first national

Visit to Canada of Rt. Hon. Stanley Baldwin, Prime Minister of Great Britain ((L-R): H.R.H. Prince George; H.R.H. the Duke of Kent; Rt. Hon. W.L. Mackenzie King; Rt. Hon. Stanley and Mrs. Baldwin) by John G. Dickson. Library and Archives Canada.

UK Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin Visits Sir John A.'s statue

1927

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Stanley Baldwin visited Sir John A. Macdonald's statue in 1927 in Kingston to pay homage to Canada's first and founding Prime Minister.

Sir John's Study at Earnscliffe in “The Dominion Illustrated,” 20 June 1891. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

British High Commissioners to Canada

1930 - present

Since 1930, British High Commissioners to Canada have had to learn a great deal about Sir John A. Macdonald.

Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King places a wreath during an event in Kingston, Ontario, on June 7, 1941, to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of Sir John A. Macdonald's death. Source: Queen's University Archives.

Prime Minister Mackenzie King and Sir John A.

1941

Canada's longest-serving Prime Minister, Mackenzie King was a great student of the life and legacy of Sir John A. Macdonald. His father had taught Sir John A.'s son, Hugh John, law in Toronto.

John A Macdonald: The Young Politician by Donald Creighton. University of Toronto Press.

Donald Creighton's Biography of Sir John A.

1952-1955

Professor Donald Creighton of the University of Toronto became one of English Canada's leading historians of the 20th century.

Prime Minister John Diefenbaker and Sir John A.

1957-1963

Sir John A. has had no greater fan amongst his successor Prime Ministers than John Diefenbaker of Saskatchewan. Diefenbaker, Prime Minister from 1957 to 1963, often told Sir John A.

Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson and Sir John A.

1963-1968

Considered by many to be one of Canada’s greatest Prime Ministers, Lester B. Pearson led the country from 1963 until 1968.

Ontario Premier William Davis and Sir John A. Macdonald

January 11, 1965

Ontario’s Premier from 1971 until 1985, William Davis also served as a ground-breaking Ontario Minister of Education in the 1960s under Premier John Robarts.

Premier John P. Robarts Announces the Macdonald-Cartier Freeway

January 11, 1965

John P. Robarts, who celebrated his birthday on January 11 as John A. did, is widely considered one of Ontario's most successful Premiers.

The Right Honourable Kim Campbell. Portrait by Bryan Adams. Source: Library and Archives Canada.

Prime Minister Kim Campbell

June 25, 1993 – November 4, 1993

Kim Campbell made history in 1993 by becoming the first woman Prime Minister of Canada. Like Sir John A. Macdonald did for a period, she also represented British Columbia in the House of Commons.

First Nations' children holding letters that spell "Goodbye" at Fort Simpson Indian Residential School in the North West Territories circa 1922. Source: J.F. Moran / Library and Archives Canada.

Truth and Reconciliation Commission

June 8, 2008

On June 8, 2008, the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement organized the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada.

Residential school in Resolution N.W.T. Source: Canada Dept of Mines and Technical Surveys, Library and Archives Canada.

2008 Apology for Residential Schools

June 11, 2008

Although the federal government apologized for their involvement in the development of residential schools in 2008, there remains little ongoing effort from the government in supporting survivors a

Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and Sir John A.

2008

Past Prime Ministers have honoured Macdonald’s statesmanship and vision. The Rt. Hon. Brian Mulroney, for example, who led Canada between 1984 and 1993, penned an article in tribute to Sir John A.

Sir John A. statue in Kingston's City Park on January 11, 2013. Photo: Alexander Gabov. Source: City of Kingston.

The Sir John A. Statue: Art and Political Protest

January 11, 2013

For more than a century the monument to Sir John A. Macdonald located in Kingston City Park has been a site for public celebration as well as political protest.

The Rt. Hon. Jean Chrétien reads. Source: City of Kingston.

Prime Minister Jean Chrétien and the Macdonald Bicentennial

January 11, 2015

Canada's 20th Prime Minister, Jean Chrétien, shares more than holding Canada's top political job with Sir John A. Macdonald.

The Rt. Hon. John Turner and the Hon. Sophie Kiwala at Kingston's Bicentennial Commemoration in January 2015. Photo: Tim Forbes. Source: City of Kingston.

Prime Minister John Turner and the Macdonald Bicentennial

January 11, 2015

Canada's 17th Prime Minister, John Turner, was one of the Hon. Chairs of Kingston's Macdonald Bicentennial Commemorations.

The Rt. Hon. Stephen Harper delivering the keynote address at the Sir John A. bicentennial in City Hall, Kingston, ON. Image: City of Kingston. Photo: Tim Forbes.

Prime Minister Stephen Harper and Sir John A.

January 11, 2015

Stephen Harper is Canada's 22nd Prime Minister. Representing Calgary in the House of Commons, he has held Canada's top political job since 2006.

John A.'s Toronto Statue

1894 - present day

Even today Sir John A. Macdonald’s statue stands prominently in front of the Ontario Legislature in Toronto. This statue of Sir John A.

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